In the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, the local laws established by municipalities are referred to as by-laws because their scope is regulated by the central governments of those nations. Accordingly, a bylaw enforcement officer is the Canadian equivalent of the American Code Enforcement Officer or Municipal Regulations Enforcement Officer. The most common misconception associated with corporation bylaws is that they are the same as articles of incorporation. In fact, these terms legally are not interchangeable. Mike Broemmel began writing in 1982. He is an author/lecturer with two novels on the market internationally, "The Shadow Cast" and "The Miller Moth." Broemmel served on the staff of the White House Office of Media Relations. He holds a Bachelor of Arts in journalism and political science from Benedictine College and a Juris Doctorate from Washburn University. He also attended Brunel University, London.